Sunday, November 14, 2010

Major Forms of Pollution

The major forms of pollution are listed below along with the particular pollutants relevant to each of them:

* Air pollution, the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Common gaseous air pollutants include carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and nitrogen oxides produced by industry and motor vehicles. Photochemical ozone and smog are created as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react to sunlight. Particulate matter, or fine dust is characterized by their micrometre size PM10 to PM2.5.

* Light pollution, includes light trespass, over-illumination and astronomical interference.
* Littering
* Noise pollution, which encompasses roadway noise, aircraft noise, industrial noise as well as high-intensity sonar.
* Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground leakage. Among the most significant soil contaminants are hydrocarbons, heavy metals, MTBE,[10] herbicides, pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons.
* Radioactive contamination, resulting from 20th century activities in atomic physics, such as nuclear power generation and nuclear weapons research, manufacture and deployment. (See alpha emitters and actinides in the environment.)
* Thermal pollution, is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence, such as use of water as coolant in a power plant.
* Visual pollution, which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste.
* Water pollution, by the release of waste products and contaminants into surface runoff into river drainage systems, leaching into groundwater, liquid spills, wastewater discharges, eutrophication and littering.

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